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Old 01-27-2006, 11:02 AM   #1
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Thumbs up Online Composites glossary....

For an online Composites glossary and free subscription to a couple of great industry composite mags too:
http://www.compositesworld.com/glossary/
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Old 01-27-2006, 11:48 AM   #2
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Thanks again . you are a great help for me.
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Old 07-02-2007, 09:10 AM   #3
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Fastrr, here you go!
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Old 06-30-2009, 01:36 AM   #4
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The glossary is no longer in existance so I have used a web archive search engine to procure an old version. This is the glossary as of 2007.

A-stage

An early stage of polymerization of thermosetting resins in which the material is still soluble in certain liquids and fusible. (See also B-stage, C-stage.)


Ablative

Describes a material that absorbs heat through a decomposition process called pyrolysis at or near the exposed surface.


Accelerator

A chemical additive that hastens cure or chemical reaction (see also catalyst).


Addition

Polymerization reaction in which no byproducts are formed.


Additive

An ingredient mixed into resin to improve properties (e.g., plasticizers, initiators, light stabilizers and flame retardants).


Adhesive

Substance applied to mating surfaces to bond them together by surface attachment.


Adhesive film

A thin plastic film onto which premixed adhesives are cast.


Aliphatic

Designates a large class of organic compounds having open-chain structures, (e.g., isopropyl alcohol).


Amorphous

Describes polymers with no crystalline component.


Angle-ply laminate

Any balanced laminate consisting of plies at angles of plus and minus theta, where theta is an acute angle with the principal laminate axis.


Anisotropic

Not isotropic. Exhibiting different properties when tested along axes in different directions within the material.


Aramid

Aromatic polyamide fibers in which at least 85 percent of the amide linkages are directly attached to two aromatic rings, giving hight tensile strength characteristics. (Often referred to as Kevlar, DuPont's trademark.)


Areal weight

Weight of a fiber reinforcement per unit area (width times length) of tape or fabric.


Aspect ratio

Ratio of the length to the diameter of a fiber.


Autoclave

Closed vessel for applying fluid pressure, with or without heat, to an enclosed object (see consolidation).


Autoclave molding

Molding technique in which an entire assembly (layup and tooling) is placed into an autoclave and subjected to heat and elevated pressure for consolidation and/or curing while removing entrapped air and volatiles.


Automated tape laying

Fabrication process in which a structure is formed by laying prepreg material, typically unidirectional tape, across the surface of a mold in multiple layers and directions by using an automated tape-application machine.


Axial winding

Filament winding wherein the filaments are parallel to or at a small angle to the axis of rotation (x-axis).



B-stage

Intermediate stage in the polymerization reaction of some thermosets in which the material softens with heat and is plastic and fusible but does not entirely dissolve or fuse. The resin of an uncured prepreg or premix is usually in this state. (See also A-stage, C-stage.)


Bag molding

Molding technique in which the composite structure is placed in a rigid mold and covered with a flexible impermeable layer of film whose edges are sealed, followed by consolidation and/or curing with pressure applied by vacuum, autoclave, press or inflation of the bag.


Balanced design

In filament winding, a winding pattern designed so that the stresses in all filaments are equal.


Balanced laminate

Any laminate that contains one ply of minus theta orientation, with respect to the principal axis of the laminate, for every identical ply with a plus theta orientation (e.g., a laminate with a principle axis of 0 combined with an equal number of plies having -45 and +45 orientations.


Barcol hardness

A surface hardness value obtained by measuring the penetration resistance of a given material to a sharp steel point under a spring load. The Barcol Impressor is an instrument that measures hardness on a 0-100 scale.


Basket weave

Woven reinforcement wherein two or more warp threads go over and under two or more filling threads in a repeating pattern; less stable than plain weave but produces a flatter, stronger, more pliable fabric (see plain weave).


Batch

Material made by the same process at the same time having identical characteristics throughout (same as lot).


Bias fabric

Fabric in which warp and fill fibers are at an angle to the length.


Biaxial fabric

Fabric with two non-interwoven layers - a unidirectional warp (0) layer and a unidirectional weft (90) layer - which are bonded together, usually by through-the-thickness stitching, to form a single sheet of fabric. (See also triaxial fabric, quadraxial fabric.)


Biaxial winding

Filament winding wherein helical bands are laid in sequence, side by side, with no fiber crossover.


Bidirectional laminate

Laminate with fibers oriented in more than one direction on the same plane.


Binder

The agent applied to glass mat or preforms to bond the fibers prior to laminating or molding.


Bismaleimide (BMI)

Type of thermoset polyimide that cures by an additional reaction, thus avoiding formation of volatiles. Exhibits temperature capabilities between those of epoxy and polyimide.


Bleeder cloth

Layer of woven or nonwoven material, not intended to become a part of the composite, that allows excess gas and resin to escape during cure.


Bleedout

Excess liquid resin appearing at the surface of the composite structure, particularly during filament winding.


BMC

See bulk molding compound.


BMI

See bismaleimide.


Bond ply

Ply or fabric patch that comes in contact with the honeycomb core during repair.


Bond strength

The adhesion between bonded surfaces. As measured by load/bond area, the stress required to separate a layer of material from another material to which it is bonded.


Boron fiber

Fiber produced by chemical vapor deposition of boron onto a core material, usually a tungsten filament. Because of the deposition process, a boron fiber is of a fairly large diameter, typically about 0.4 mils, and is thus often referred to as a wire.


Braiding

Textile process that intertwines into a pattern three or more strands, yarns or tapes, typically into a tubular shape.


Breakout

Separation or breakage of fibers when the edges of a composite part are drilled or cut.


Breather

Loosely woven material that does not come in contact with the resin but serves as a continuous vacuum path over a part in production.


Bridging

Fabric plies over a curved edge that do not come in full contact with the core material. Also, excess resin that has formed on edges during cure.


Broadgoods

General term for fibers woven into fabrics that may or may not be impregnated with resin; usually furnished in rolls.


Bromine

A fire retardant (halogen) used to reduce or eliminate a resin's tendency to burn.


Buckling

Failure mode usually characterized by unstable lateral deflection, rather than breakage, under compressive force.


Bulk molding compound (BMC)

A premixed blend of thermosetting resin, reinforcements, catalysts and fillers for use in compression-, transfer- or injection-molding processes.


Bundle

General term for a collection of essentially parallel filaments.


Continued next post.
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Old 06-30-2009, 01:39 AM   #5
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C-stage

The final step in the curing process for thermoset resins, resulting in irreversible hardening and insolubility. (See also A-stage, B-stage.)


CAD/CAM

Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing.


Carbon fiber

Reinforcing fiber produced by the pyrolysis of an organic precursor fiber, such as PAN (polyacrylonitrile), rayon or pitch, in an inert atmosphere at temperatures above 982C/1800F. The term carbon is often used interchangeably with the term graphite, but the fibers differ. Carbon fibers are typically carbonized at about 1315C/2400F and contain 93 percent to 95 percent carbon. Carbon fibers can be converted to graphite fibers by graphitization at 1900C to 2480C (3450F to 4500F), after which they contain more than 99 percent elemental carbon. Carbon fibers are known for their light weight, high strength and high stiffness.


Carbon/carbon

Composite of carbon fiber in a carbon matrix.


Cast polymer

A nonreinforced composite (resin used without reinforcing fibers) that combines polymers, fillers and additives as composites to meet specific application requirements.


Catalyst

Substance that promotes or controls curing of a compound without being consumed in the reaction. (See also hardener.)


Catalyzed resin

A resin mixture possibly still in the workable state, after it has been mixed with catalyst or hardener.


Catenary

Uniformity of strand length in a specified length of roving stretched under tension. Poor catenary means some strands in the roving length are longer than others.


Caul plate

Plate or sheet the same size and shape as the composite layup with which it will be used. The caul plate is placed in immediate contact with the layup during curing to transmit normal pressure and provide a smooth surface on the finished part.


Centipoise (cps)

A unit of measure used to designate a fluid's viscosity (at 21C/70F, water is 1 cps; peanut butter is 250,000 cps).


Centrifugal casting

A processing technique for fabricating cylindrical structures, in which the composite material is positioned inside a hollow mandrel designed to be heated and rotated as resin is cured.


Ceramic-matrix composites (CMC)

Materials consisting of a ceramic or carbon fiber surrounded by a ceramic matrix, primarily silicon carbide.


Charge pattern

The ply schedule used in parts made from sheet molding compound (SMC); a pre-weighed number of SMC plies cut from an SMC sheet and oriented in such a way that the material will fill the mold cavity when placed in the mold and compressed.


Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)

Process in which the reinforcement material is deposited from the vapor phase onto a continuous core such as boron or tungsten.


Chopped strand

Continuous roving that is chopped into short lengths for use in mats, spray up or molding compounds.


Circumferential winding

Process of winding fiber perpendicular to the axis during filament winding.


Cloth

See fabric.


CMC

See ceramic-matrix composite.


Cocured

Cured and simultaneously bonded to another prepared surface.


Coefficient of expansion (COE)

A measure of the change in length or volume of an object.


Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE)

A material's fractional change in length for a given unit change of temperature.


Cohesion

Tendency of a single substance to adhere to itself. Also, the force holding a single substance together.


Coin tap

Tapping a laminate with a coin in different spots to detect a change in sound, indicating the presence of a defect that may require repair.


Commingled yarn

Hybrid yarn made with two types of materials intermingled in a single yarn (for example, thermoplastic filaments intermingled with carbon filaments to form a single yarn).


Composite

Three-dimensional combination of at least two materials differing in form or composition, with a distinct interface separating the components. Composite materials are usually manmade and created to obtain properties that cannot be achieved by any of the components acting alone.


Compression molding

Technique for molding thermoset composites in which the part is shaped and cured in the same step. Layered reinforcing fibers and resin paste (typically precombined in a leather-like, preimpregnated sheet) are placed into an open two-part mold cavity. The mold is closed and, with the application of both heat and pressure, the resin viscosity drops, the material is forcibly distributed throughout the mold cavity to take its final shape and the part is allowed to cure.


Compressive strength

Resistance to a crushing or buckling force; the maximum compressive load a specimen sustains divided by its original cross-sectional area.


Condensation

A polymerization reaction in which simple byproducts (e.g., water) are released.


Consolidation

A processing step in which a fiber and matrix are compressed to reduce voids and achieve a particular density.


Contaminant

An impurity or foreign substance that affects one or more properties of composite materials, particularly adhesion.


Continuous filament

An individual, flexible, small-diameter fiber of indefinite length.


Continuous roving

Large bundle of parallel filaments coated with sizing, gathered together into single or multiple strands, and wound into a cylindrical package. May be used to provide continuous reinforcement in woven roving, filament winding, pultrusion, prepregs, or high-strength molding compounds (may also be used chopped).


Coordinate axes

See laminate coordinate axes.


Core

In sandwich construction, the central component to which inner and outer skins are attached; also refers to a section of a complex mold that forms undercut parts (also see honeycomb).


Core crush

Compression damage of the core.


Core depression

A gouge or indentation in the core material.


Core orientation

Used on a honeycomb core to line up the ribbon direction, thickness of the cell depth, cell size and transverse direction.


Core separation

A breaking of honeycomb core cells.


Core splicing

Joining of two core segments by bonding them together.


Cowoven fabric

Reinforcement fabric woven with two different types of fibers in individual yarns (e.g., thermoplastic fibers woven side by side with carbon fibers).


Crazing

Region of ultrafine cracks that may develop on or under a resin surface.


Creel

A device for holding the required number of roving spools or other supply packages of reinforcement in the desired unwinding position.


Creep

Time-dependent dimensional change in a material under physical load.


Crimp

Degree of waviness of a fiber, which determines its capacity to cohere.


Critical length

Minimum length of a fiber necessary for matrix shear loading to develop ultimate fiber strength.


Cross-laminated

Laminated with some of the layers oriented at one or more angles to the other layers with respect to the principal laminate axis. (See cross-ply laminate and fiber architecture.)


Cross-ply laminate

A laminate having plies oriented only at 0 and 90. May or may not be symmetrical.


Crosslinking

Polymerization reactions that branch out from the main molecular chain to form a networked pattern of chemical links.


Crystalline

Having a molecular structure in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly, three-dimensional pattern.


CTE

See coefficient of thermal expansion.


Cure

Irreversible alteration of the molecular structure and physical properties of a thermosetting resin by chemical reaction, typically stimulated by heat and/or the presence of catalysts, with or without applied pressure. However, see ultraviolet (UV) cure.


Cure temperature

The temperature at which a material attains final cure.


Curing agent

Catalytic or reactive agent that brings about polymerization when added to a resin (also see accelerator, catalyst and hardener).


CVD

See chemical vapor deposition.
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Damage tolerance

A measure of a structure's ability to retain load-carrying capability after exposure to sudden loads (for example, ballistic impact).


Damping

Diminishing the intensity of vibrations.


Debond

Deliberate separation of a bonded joint or interface, usually for repair or rework purposes. (See also disbond.)


Delamination

Separation of plies in a laminate due to adhesive failure. This may occur locally or involve a large area. Also includes the separation of layers of fabric from the core structure.


Demold

To remove a part from a tool or a tool from an intermediate model.


Denier

Numbering system for continuous yarn and continuous filaments in which the yarn number is equal to the weight in grams per 9,000 meters of yarn; the finer the yarn, the lower the denier.


Design allowable

A limiting value for a material property that can be used to design a structural or mechanical system to a specified level of performance with a specific level of statistical confidence.


Dielectric

Electrically nonconductive; the ability of a material to resist the flow of an electric current.


Dielectric strength

The voltage required to penetrate insulating material. Material with high dielectric strength offers excellent electrical insulating properties.


Disbond

Undesirable separation of bonded surfaces at the bond interface, due to adhesive or cohesive failure, occurring at any time during the life of the bonded structure and arising from any of a wide variety of causes. The term is also sometimes used to describe delamination. (Also see debond.)


Doubler

An extra layer of reinforcement, applied to increase stiffness or strength in portions of a laminate expected to incur abrupt load transfers.


Draft

The degree of taper designed into the sides of a mold so the part can be removed.


Draft angle

A mandrel's taper or angle for ease of part removal.


Drape

The ability of fabric or prepreg to conform to a contoured surface.


Dry winding

In filament winding, when fiber reinforcement is applied to the mandrel without first being wet out with resin.

E-glass

Abbreviation for "electrical glass," borosilicate glass fibers, which have high electrical resistivity. Most often used in conventional polymer matrix composites.


Elastic limit

The greatest stress a material is capable of sustaining without permanent strain remaining after complete release of the stress (see stress and strain).


Elasticity

The property of materials to recover immediately their original size and shape when load is removed after deformation.


Elongation

The fractional increase in length of a material loaded in tension. When expressed as a percentage of the original length, it is called percent elongation.


End

A general term for a single strand of roving, which is a continuous, ordered assembly of essentially parallel, collimated filaments, with or without twist.


End count

The exact number of strands contained in a particular roving.


Engineering plastics

A general term covering all plastics, with or without fillers or reinforcements, that have mechanical, chemical and thermal properties suited for use as construction materials or in components for machines and chemical processing equipment.


Epoxy

A thermosetting polymer containing one or more epoxide or oxirane groups, curable by reaction with amines or alcohols; used as a resin matrix in reinforced plastic products and as the primary component in certain structural adhesives. Cured epoxy resin is highly resistant to chemicals and water and its performance properties are relatively unaffected by extreme temperatures.


Exotherm

Heat released during a chemical reaction. Uncontrolled exotherm during cure of a composite component can lead to heat build up, which can result in part warpage and/or mold damage and, in extreme cases, could produce an explosion.

Fabric

Planar textile. Also known as cloth.


Fabric, nonwoven

Planar textile constructed by bonding or interlocking but not interlacing fibers or yarns by mechanical, chemical, thermal or solvent means.


Fabric, woven

Planar textile constructed by interlacing fibers or yarns, using a weaving process.


Fabrication

Process of making a composite part or tool.


Fatigue

Failure or deterioration of a material's mechanical properties as a result of repeated cyclic loading or deformation over time.


Fatigue strength

Maximum cyclical stress withstood for a given number of cycles before a material fails. The residual strength after being subjected to fatigue loading.


FEA

See finite-element analysis.


Fiber

One or more filaments in an ordered assemblage.


Fiber architecture

The design of a fibrous preform or part in which the fibers are arranged in a particular way to achieve a desired result. Mats and braided, stitched and woven fabrics are common forms of fiber architecture.


Fiber bridging

Reinforcing fiber material bridging an inside radius of a pultruded product. The condition is caused by shrinkage stresses around such a radius during cure.


Fiber content

The amount of fiber present in a composite expressed either as a percent by weight or percent by volume. Also sometimes stated as a fiber volume fraction or expressed in ratio to the matrix content (e.g., a 60:40 fiber-to-resin ratio denotes a composite with 60 percent fiber content and 40 percent resin content).


Fiber orientation

Direction of fiber alignment in a nonwoven or mat laminate wherein most of the fibers are placed in the same direction to afford greater strength in that direction.


Fiber placement

Continuous process for fabricating composite shapes with complex contours and/or cutouts by means of a device that lays preimpregnated fibers (in tow form) onto a nonuniform mandrel or tool. Differs from filament winding in several ways: There is no limit on fiber angles; compaction takes place online via heat, pressure or both; and fibers can be added and dropped as necessary. The process can produce shapes with greater complexity and permits a faster putdown rate than filament winding.


Fiber volume fraction

See fiber content.


Fiber wash

Dislocation or displacement of reinforcing fibers placed within a mold caused by the force of the resin flow, resulting in unintended fiber distribution within the finished part.


Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP)

General term for a polymer-matrix composite that is reinforced with cloth, mat, strands or any other fiber form. However, in practice, the term is most often used in reference to glass fiber-reinforced plastics.


Fiberglass

Reinforcing fiber made by drawing molten glass through bushings. The predominant reinforcement used with polymer matrix composites, it is known for its good strength, processability and low cost.


Filament

Polycrystalline or amorphous individual fiber unit with a length-to-diameter ratio greater than one. The minimum diameter of a filament is not limited, but the maximum diameter may not exceed 0.010 inches. Filaments greater than about 0.002 inches in diameter are often referred to as wires.


Filament count

Number of filaments in the cross-section of a fiber bundle.


Filament winding

An automated process in which continuous reinforcing fibers, either preimpregnated with resin or drawn through a resin bath, are wound under controlled tension around a rotating form to make a composite structure. (Also see winding and mandrel.)


Fill

The fiber bundles in a woven fabric that run transverse (at a 90 angle) to the warp yarns; also known as weft or woof.


Filler

A solid constituent, usually inert, added to a matrix to modify a composite's properties (e.g., increase viscosity, improve appearance or de-crease density) or to decrease part material cost.


Filler ply

An additional patch used to fill in a depression in a repair or build up an edge.


Film adhesive

Adhesive in the form of a thin, dry resin film, with or without a carrier; commonly used for adhesion between laminate layers.


Finish

Material applied to textiles to improve the bond between the fiber and matrix; applied after sizing is removed.


Finite element analysis

Process of selecting the optimum combination of materials in a composite, based on computer-based computational modeling and analysis.


Flexural modulus

Ratio, within the elastic limit, of the applied stress on a test sample in flexure to the corresponding strain in the outermost fibers of the sample.


Flexural strength

Strength of a material in bending, usually expressed in force per unit area, as the stress of a bent test sample at the instant of failure.


Fracture

A rupture in the surface of a laminate due to external or internal forces; may or may not result in complete separation.


Fracture toughness

A measure of the damage tolerance of a material containing initial flaws or cracks.


FRP

See fiber-reinforced plastics.
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Old 06-30-2009, 01:40 AM   #7
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Gel

To enter an initial jelly-like, semi-solid phase during a resin curing process.


Gel coat

An unreinforced, clear or pigmented coating resin applied to the surface of a mold or part to provide a smooth, more impervious finish on the part exterior.


Gel time

The period of time from initial mixing of liquid reactants in a resin to the point when gelation occurs as defined by a specific test method.


Glass fiber

see fiberglass.


Glass transition

A reversible change in an amorphous polymer between a viscous condition and a hard, relatively brittle condition.


Glass-transition temperature (Tg)

Approximate temperature at which increased molecular mobility results in significant changes in properties of a cured resin. The measured value of Tg can vary, depending on the test method.


Graphite fibers

Carbon fibers that have been graphitized by heating and stretching at temperatures above 1649C/3000F.


Graphitization

Process of pyrolysis at very high temperatures (up to 2982C/5400F) that converts carbon to its crystalline allotropic form.


Halogenated resin

A resin combined with chlorine or bromine to increase fire retardancy.


Hand layup

A fabrication method in which reinforcement layers, preimpregnated or coated afterwards, are placed and arranged in a mold manually. (In contrast to sprayup or automated methods, such as fiber placement.)


HAPs

see hazardous air pollutants.


Hard tool

A tool made of metal or any "hard" material that is generally impervious to process-related damage (e.g., exothermic distortion) during normal molding operations (in contrast to soft tool). See tool.


Hardener

A substance that may be added to a resin to promote and/or control the curing process by participating in and being consumed by the cure reaction. (Also see accelerator, curing agent and catalyst.)


Hazardous air pollutants (HAPS)

Potentially airborne compounds determined to be hazardous to human health by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).


Heat

The term used colloquially to indicate any temperature above ambient (room) temperature to which a part or material is or will be subjected.


Heat-deflection temperature (HDT)

The temperature at which a standard plastic test bar deflects a specified distance under a stated load.


Helical

Describes ply laid onto a rotating mandrel at an angle, often at a 45 angle.


Helix angle

The angle at which continuous filaments are wound in relation to the longitudinal mandrel axis in the filament-winding process.


High-performance composites

Composites offering properties better than conventional structural metals, typically on a strength-to-weight or stiffness-to-weight basis. Such composites use continuous, oriented fibers in polymer, metal or ceramic matrices to achieve their superior properties.


Honeycomb

A lightweight cellular structure (typically hexagonal nested cells) used as core in composite sandwich structures. May be made from either metallic (e.g., aluminum) or nonmetallic (e.g., resin-impregnated paper or woven fabric) sheet materials. Rectangular sheets are adhesively bonded together in stacks, by means of parallel stripes of adhesive placed at regular intervals along one axis. Stacks are sliced across the transverse axis, and each sliced stack is expanded to form a honeycomb grid.


Hoop

Describes ply layed onto a rotating mandrel at a 90 angle to the long axis of the mandrel.


Hoop stress

Circumferential stress in a cylindrically shaped part as a result of internal or external pressure.


Hot-bond repair

Repair made on a hot-patch bonding machine to cure and monitor curing. Typically includes heat and vacuum source.


Hybrid composite

Composite containing at least two distinct types of matrix or reinforcement. The matrix or reinforcement types can be distinguished by their physical properties, mechanical properties, material form and/or chemical composition.


Hygroscopy

A material's readiness to absorb or retain moisture.


Impact strength

A material's ability to withstand shock loading as measured during a test in which a specimen is fractured.


Impregnate

To saturate the voids and interstices of a reinforcement with resin.


Impregnated fabric

See prepreg.


In situ

In the original position; in filament winding, designates a mandrel that remains in place after winding, as opposed to a mandrel that is removed after winding. In pipe repair, a type of repair that does not require pipe excavation; rather a composite sleeve is inserted into the existing pipe through a manhole.


Inclusion

Physical and mechanical discontinuity occurring within a material or part.


Inhibitor

A chemical additive that slows or delays a cure cycle.


Injection molding

A method of forming a plastic to the desired shape by forcibly injecting the polymer into a mold.


Integral heating

System in which heating elements are built into a tool, forming part of the tool and usually eliminating the need for an oven or autoclave as a heat source.


Interface

The plane formed when two material surfaces make contact: in glass fibers, for instance, the area at which the glass and sizing meet; in a laminate, the area at which the reinforcement and laminating resin meet.


Interlaminar

Existing or occurring between two or more adjacent laminae in a laminate.


Interlaminar shear

Shearing force that produces displacement between two laminae along the plane of their interface.


Intralaminar

Existing or occurring within a single lamina in a laminate.


Intumescent

Capable of swelling or enlarging. In reference to fire-retardants, describes a layer or coating of material designed to swells or thicken in order to form a more effective barrier to heat and/or flame when exposed to either.


Isotropic

Fiber directionality with uniform properties in all directions, independent of the direction of applied load.


Isotropic laminate

A laminate in which the strength properties are equal in all directions, such as contact-molded laminates or metals.

No entries for J.

Kevlar

Trademark of DuPont for high-performance para-aramid fibers used as reinforcements (see aramid).


Knit

Textile process that interlocks, in a specific pattern, loops of yarn by means of stitching process, using needles or wires.

Lamina

Subunit of a laminate consisting of one or more adjacent plies of the same material with identical orientation. (Plural: laminae.)


Lamina orientation

See ply orientation.


Laminate

To unite or bond two or more layers or laminae (often with the aid of pressure and/or heat). Any fiber- or fabric-reinforced composite consisting of laminae with one or more orientations with respect to some reference direction.


Laminate coordinate axes

Set of coordinate axes, usually right-handed Cartesian, used as a reference in describing the directional properties and geometrical structure of the laminate. Usually the x-axis and the y-axis lie in the plane of the laminate and the x-axis is the reference axis from which ply angle is measured. The x-axis is often in the principal load direction of the laminate and/or in the direction of the laminate principal axis. (See principal axis, off-axis laminate and x-axis.)


Lap joint

A joint made by overlapping two parts and bonding them together.


Layup

To place or the process of placing layers of reinforcing material into position in or on a mold; also used to refer to the reinforcing materials as placed in the mold ("the layup").


Layup code

Designation system for abbreviating the stacking sequence of laminated composites.


Liner

The continuous, usually flexible, reinforced resin barrier on the inside surface of a plastic or thermoset laminate, used to protect the laminate from chemical attack or to prevent leakage under stress.


Liquid-crystal polymers (LCP)

High-performance melt-processible thermoplastics that develop high orientation in the melt and after molding, resulting in very high tensile strength and high-temperature capability.


Lot

See batch.


Low profile

Describes resin compounds formulated for low-to-zero shrinkage during molding.
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Old 06-30-2009, 01:42 AM   #8
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MACT

Maximum Achievable Control Technology. A technology-based air pollution control standard developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) aimed at reducing emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from U.S. manufacturing operations.


Mandrel

A form, fixture or male mold used as the base for production of a part in processes such as layup or filament winding.


Mat

An unwoven textile fabric made of fibrous reinforcing material, such as chopped filaments (to produce chopped strand mat) or swirled filaments (to produce continuous strand mat) with a binder applied to maintain form. Available in blankets of various widths, weights, thicknesses and lengths. May be oriented.


Matched metal molding

See compression molding.


Matrix

Material in which reinforcing fiber of a composite is embedded. Matrix materials include thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers, metals and ceramic compounds.


Matrix content

Amount of matrix present in a composite expressed either as a percent by weight or percent by volume. For polymer-matrix composites this is the resin content. (Also see fiber content.)


Metal-matrix composite (MMC)

Continuous carbon, silicon carbide, or ceramic fibers embedded in a metallic matrix material.


Microcracking

Microscopic cracks formed in composites when thermal stresses locally exceed the strength of the matrix.


Midplane

Plane that is equidistant from both surfaces of the laminate.


Mil

The unit used in measuring the diameter of glass fiber strands, wire and so forth (1 mil = 0.0254 mm/0.001 inch).


Milled fiber

Continuous glass or carbon strands hammer-milled into very short fibers.


MMC

See metal-matrix composite.


Modulus

The physical measure of a material's stiffness, equal to the ratio of applied load (stress) to the resulting deformation of a material. May be represented by a number or in descriptive glossary as low, intermediate, high or ultrahigh. A higher modulus indicates greater stiffness. (See stiffness and Young's modulus.)


Moisture absorption

Pickup of water vapor from the air by a material. Refers to vapor withdrawn from the air only as distinguished from water absorption, which is weight gain due to the absorption of water by immersion.


Mold

An enclosed cavity or open form from which a composite component takes its shape, size and exterior surface appearance (also known as a tool).


Mold release agent

A lubricant used to prevent a part from sticking to a mold surface.


Molding

The process of forming composite materials into a solid mass of prescribed shape and size, using a mold or tool.


Monofilament

Single continuous filament strong enough to function as a fiber in textile or other operations.


Monomer

A single molecule that reacts with like or unlike molecules to form a polymer.


Multifilament

Yarn or tow consisting of many continuous filaments (also see yarn and tow).

Naphtha

A petroleum distillate commonly used as a solvent for natural resins and rubber.


NDE, NDI, NDT

Nondestructive evaluation, nondestructive inspection, nondestructive testing. (See nondestructive inspection.)


Near-net shape

Describes a manufactured part or reinforcement preform fabricated to final dimensions that require minimal machining, cutting or other finishing.


Net shape

Fabricated to final dimensions that do not require machining or cutting.


Nomex

Trademark of DuPont for moderate-performance meta-aramid material that is often used in paper form to make honeycomb core.


Nondestructive inspection (NDI)

Determining material or part characteristics without permanently altering the test object. Nondestructive testing (NDT) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are broadly considered synonymous with NDI.


Nonwoven roving

A form of fiber reinforcement composed of continuous fiber strands loosely gathered together.


Nylon

The generic name, by common usage, for all synthetic polyamides.


Off-axis laminate

Laminate whose principal axis is oriented at an angle theta other than 0 or 90 with respect to a reference direction, usually related to the principal load or stress direction.


One-off

Denotes a fabrication process in which a single part is produced.


One-part resin system

A resin system (often used in resin transfer molding) in which the neat resin and catalyst are mixed together by the materials supplier as part of the resin production process.


Original equipment manufacturer (OEM)

Describes a company that designs and builds products bearing its name; for example, Boeing 777 aircraft or Prince tennis racquets.


Out-time

Period of time in which a prepreg retains desirable handling characteristics and performance properties outside a specified storage environment (such as a freezer, in the case of thermoset prepregs).


Outgassing

The release of solvents and moisture from composite parts under a vacuum.
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PAN

See polyacrylonitrile.


Part consolidation

A design-and-fabrication process in which a number of previously discrete parts are combined in a single component to reduce or eliminate assembly operations and associated costs.


Parting film

A layer of thin plastic that prevents bagging materials from sticking to a part. It may be perforated to vent excess resin. It is removed after cure.


PBO

See poly p-phenylene-2,6-bensobisoxazale.


Peel ply

A layer of material that, when applied to a layup surface, can be removed from the cured laminate prior to bonding operations, leaving a clean, resin-rich surface suitable for bonding.


Peel strength

Strength of an adhesive bond between sheet materials; determined by applying parting stress at a right angle (perpendicular) to the plane of the adhesive interface.


Phenolic resin

A thermosetting resin produced by a condensation reaction of an aromatic alcohol with an aldehyde (usually phenol with formaldehyde).


Pin holes

Small voids open to and visible on the surface of a cured composite part.


Pitch

Residual petroleum product used as a precursor in the manufacture of certain carbon fibers.


Planar winding

Filament winding method in which the filament path lays on a plane that intersects the winding surface.


Plastic

General term for a range of high-molecular-weight thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers that have characteristics and properties that make them suitable for use in molding, casting, extruding or laminating processes.


Plied yarn

Two or more yarns collected together, with or without twist.


Ply

A single layer (or lamina) used to fabricate a laminate. Also, the number of single yarns twisted together to form a plied yarn.


Ply orientation

Acute angle (theta) - including 90 - between a reference direction and the ply principal axis. the ply orientation is positive if measured counterclockwise from the reference direction and negative if measured clockwise.


Ply schedule

A prescribed sequence for laying up individual plies or layers to form a laminate, indicating the arrangement of plies by material type and other characteristics, such as fiber orientation.


Poisson's ratio

When a material is stretched, its cross-sectional area changes as well as its length. Poisson's ratio is the constant relating these changes in dimensions, and is defined as the ratio of the change in width per unit width to the change in length per unit length.


Polar winding

Filament winding in which the filament path passes tangent to the polar opening at one end of the chamber and tangent to the opposite side of the polar opening at the other end of the chamber.


Poly p-phenylene-2,6-bensobisoxazale (PBO)

A relatively new polymer fiber, with a modulus and tensile strength almost double that of aramid fiber and a decomposition temperature almost 100C/212F higher.


Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)

Polymer base material that is spun into a fiber form and used as a precursor in the manufacture of certain carbon fibers.


Polyester

Thermosetting resins produced by dissolving unsaturated, generally linear, alkyd resins in a vinyl-type active monomer, such as styrene. The resins are usually furnished in solution form, but powdered solids are also available.


Polyetherimide (PEI)

A high-performance thermoplastic resin with repeating aromatic imide and ether molecular units. Characterized by high strength and rigidity over a wide range of temperatures, as well as long-term heat resistance, highly stable dimensional properties and broad chemical resistance.


Polyimide (PI)

Highly heat-resistant thermoplastic polymer resin.


Polymer

Large organic molecule formed by combining many smaller molecules (monomers) in a regular pattern.


Polymer alloy (or polymer blend)

A blend of polymers, copolymers or elastomers.


Polymerization

Chemical reaction that links monomers to form polymers.


Porosity

The presence of voids open to the surface of a solid material into which air or liquids may pass.


Postcure

Exposure of a molded component to elevated temperature after initial in-mold curing, performed for the purpose of improving the component's mechanical properties. Postcure may occur after demolding and is often done without the use of pressure.


Pot life

Length of time in which a catalyzed thermosetting resin retains sufficiently low viscosity for processing.


Precure

Full or partial hardening of a resin or adhesive before pressure is applied.


Precursor

Material from which carbon fibers are made by pyrolysis. Common precursors are polyacrylonitrile (PAN), rayon and pitch.


Preform

Pre-shaped fibrous reinforcement, supplied without matrix, but often containing a binder to facilitate manufacture and maintain shape. A preform's fiber components are distributed or arranged, typically on a mandrel or mock-up, to approximate the contours and thickness of the finished part, saving time and labor during the molding process.


Prepreg

Fibrous reinforcement (sheet, tape, tow, fabric or mat) preimpregnated with resin and capable of storage for later use. For thermosetting matrices the resin is usually partially cured or otherwise brought to a controlled viscosity, called B-stage. Additives (e.g., catalysts, inhibitors and flame retardants) are used to obtain specific end-use properties and/or improve processing, storage and handling characteristics.


Primary structure

An aerospace critical load-bearing structure; if damaged the aircraft or space vehicle cannot operate safely.


Prime contractors

Referred to as "primes"; companies that are awarded government contracts and usually work with subcontractors (or "subs") who provide individual and specific components or systems relevant to the contract. Primes often team on contracts, sharing portions of the contract funding.


Principal axis

Laminate coordinate axis that coincides with the direction of maximum inplane Young's modulus. Within a ply, for a balanced weave fabric either warp or fill direction may be chosen. (See also laminate coordinate axes and x-axis.)


Promoter

A chemical which hastens the reaction between a catalyst and a resin (also known as an accelerator).


Prototype

A test part not intended for commercial release, which establishes design, material and fabrication parameters for a new product. Also, to fabricate such a test part (a process that can entail multiple iterations to arrive at final/commercial part design).


Puckers

Local areas on prepreg where material has blistered and pulled away from the separator film or release paper.


Pultrusion

Continuous process for manufacturing composite rods, tubes and other linear structures that have constant cross-sections. The process involves drawing continuous reinforcement through a resin-impregnation bath (or an alternative resin-impregnation method is used), then pulling the wetout material through a heated shaping die, where cure takes place, securing the desired cross-section before the laminate departs from the die.


Puncture

A break in the composite skin of a sandwich structure that may or may not go through to the core material or completely through the part thickness.


Pyrolysis

The decomposition or other transformation of a compound caused by exposure to heat.

Quadraxial fabric

Fabric with four non-interwoven layers +45, -45, 0 and 90 - which are bonded together, usually by through-the-thickness stitching, to form a single sheet of fabric. (See also biaxial fabric, triaxial fabric.)


Quasi-isotropic

Approximates isotropy by orientation of plies in multiple directions.
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Ramping

A programmed gradual increase/ decrease in temperature and/or pressure to control cure or cooling of composite parts.


Rate tools

Tools designed to be used repeatedly in a production setting to fabricate many parts rather than a single prototype or small number of demonstration parts.


Reaction injection molding (RIM)

A process involving high-pressure mixing of two highly reactive resin components to promote fast cure; primarily used in the molding of parts with polyurethane matrices.


Reagent

A substance used in a chemical reaction to produce other substances.


Regrind

Scrap composites (thermoset or thermoplastic) collected in-plant or from post-consumer sources and reground into pellets or fine powder for reuse in molding new parts, either as a new base material or in combination with virgin materials.


Reinforced reaction injection molding (RRIM)

A closed molding process that mixes two highly reactive resin components for cure. Reinforcement, generally flake glass or milled fibers, is added to one of the resin components to add strength and reduce thermal expansion.


Reinforced reaction injection molding (RRIM)

Reaction injection molding process in which one of the two mixed components is reinforced, usually with flake glass or milled fibers, to stiffen the part and reduce thermal expansion (see previous entry).


Reinforcement

The key element added to a matrix to provide the required properties (primarily strength). Reinforcement forms range from individual short fibers to complex braided, woven or stitched textile forms.


Release agent

An specially formulated material placed between the mold and uncured resin/fiber (usually sprayed or painted on the mold surface) to prevent permanent bonding between the two during cure and facilitates demolding after cure.


Release film

A release agent made from an impermeable film that does not form a bond with the composite material during cure.


Resin

A solid or pseudo-solid polymeric material, often of high molecular weight, which exhibits a tendency to flow when subjected to stress, usually has a softening or melting range, and usually fractures conchoidally. As composite matrices, resins bind together reinforcement fibers and work with them to produce specified performance properties.


Resin content

See matrix content.


Resin transfer molding (RTM)

A closed molding process in which catalyzed resin is transferred into an enclosed mold cavity to impregnate a pre-positioned fibrous reinforcement (see preform). The mold and/or resin may or may not be heated. RTM involves relatively low tooling and equipment costs and enables fabricators to consolidate large parts.


Resin viscosity

Describes a resin system's solid-to-liquid transition resistance to flow, which can be altered by temperature and pressure to achieve desired flow characteristics. (Also see viscosity.)


Resin-rich

Describes a localized buildup of resin in excess of the expected resin/fiber ratio in a composite.


Resin-starved

Describes an area in a composite that lacks sufficient resin to achieve thorough fiber wetout.


Ribbon direction

On a honeycomb core, the length of the core splice; the direction perpendicular to the direction of cell expansion (w-direction). The direction of one continuous ribbon. (See honeycomb.)


Roving

Large filament-count tow; a collection of continuous glass fiber filaments, either as untwisted strands or twisted yarn.


RTM

See resin transfer molding.


RTM Light

A variant of resin transfer molding (RTM) in which vacuum pressure is used to hold two mold halves together while resin is injected at very low pressure (1 psi to 2 psi). The low pressure permits the use of lightweight, low-cost tooling.
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